The Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE.Punjab was later invaded by Tamerlane, Babur, and Nader Shah.
Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have nevertheless been found.
Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara Mahajanapadas, Achaemenids, Macedonians, Mauryas, Kushans, Guptas and Hindu Shahi.
The administration of the Sikh Empire was based out of Lahore, until its defeat by the British.
Punjab was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with Lahore being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan.
Swaths of what is now Punjab were annexed by the Afghan conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 as he made the Punjab a part of his Durrani Empire, lasting until 1762.